What is Cross Site Scripting Attack (XSS) and How Can You Prevent It?

1 min read

XSS refers to client-side code injection, where the attacker injects malicious scripts into a legitimate website or web application. This is often achieved when the application does not validate user input and freely injects dynamic HTML content.

For example, a comment system will be at risk if it does not validate or escape user input. If the comment contains unescaped HTML, the comment can inject a <script>  tag into the website that other users will execute against their knowledge.

  • The malicious script has access to cookies, which are often used to store session tokens. If an attacker can obtain a user’s session cookie, they can impersonate the user.
  • The script can arbitrarily manipulate the DOM of the page the script is executing in, allowing the attacker to insert pieces of content that appear to be a real part of the website.
  • The script can use AJAX to send HTTP requests with arbitrary content to arbitrary destinations.


  • On the client, using textContent  instead of innerHTML  prevents the browser from running the string through the HTML parser, which would execute scripts in it.
  • On the server, escaping HTML tags will prevent the browser from parsing the user input as actual HTML and therefore won’t execute the script.

Thanks for reading…

Happy Coding!

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